DescriptionS-Adenosylmethionine is the active Lipotrope form of Methionine (i.e. it is a Methionine-derivative that also contains Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) within its chemical structure) normally manufactured within the body but also manufactured synthetically for use as a nutritional supplement.
Health Benefits of SAMe
Supplemental SAMe may stimulate the flow of Bile. Supplemental SAMe (600 800 mg per day) may help to prevent Cholestasis (by improving the flow of Bile).
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients have low endogenous Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) levels of SAMe and for this reason supplemental SAMe is under investigation as a potential treatment for AIDS. Supplemental SAMe may help to protect against Liver Cancer in people exposed to Liver carcinogens.
Supplemental SAMe (1,200 mg per day) may significantly reduce the elevated Bilirubin levels that are associated with Gilbert’s Syndrome. SAMe may help to protect Liver cells and may help to preserve Liver cell function in Hepatitis C patients. SAMe is stored in the Liver and supplemental SAMe may enhance the health of the Liver and normalize the function of the Liver:
SAMe may help to prevent the Liver toxicity associated with the Pharmaceutical Drugs used in Chemotherapy.Supplemental SAMe may inhibit Alcohol-induced Liver damage (including Alcohol-induced Fatty Liver).Supplemental SAMe may prevent and cure Cirrhosis. Supplemental SAMe may prevent and treat Fatty Liver.
SAMe functions in over forty biochemical reactions within the body it functions as a Methyl Donor.
SAMe may stimulate the production of Cartilage. Supplemental SAMe may enhance the differentiation of Chondrocytes into Chondroblasts. Supplemental SAMe (800 mg per day) may alleviate Fibromyalgia:
Specific improvements in Fibromyalgia symptoms caused by SAMe therapy include a significant reduction in the number of trigger points, reduction in Fatigue, reduction in morning stiffness and improvements in Mood.
Supplemental SAMe (400 1,200 mg per day) alleviates Osteoarthritis (by increasing Cartilage formation). Supplemental SAMe may alleviate Fibrositis.
Alzheimer’s Disease patients often exhibit severely decreased levels of SAMe within their Brains (indicating that supplemental SAMe may be beneficial to Alzheimer’s Disease patients):
It was previously (prior to 1995) assumed that Alzheimer’s Disease patients had excessive accumulation of SAMe this assumption has now proven to be erroneous.
SAMe is an essential factor for the regeneration of Axons on Neurons following injury and is also essential for the formation of Myelin Sheaths that surround Axons:
SAMe may help to prevent the death of Neurons during periods of Anoxia (absence of Oxygen).
Supplemental SAMe (400 1,600 mg per day) may alleviate all forms of Depression:
Many studies have confirmed that SAMe is significantly (approximately 15%) more effective for the treatment of Depression than traditional Pharmaceutical Anti-Depressants.SAMe may alleviate Major Depression. SAMe may be especially effective for treating Postpartum Depression.
Supplemental SAMe (after long-term use) may help to treat Migraines. Supplemental SAMe is under investigation as a potential treatment for Parkinson’s Disease.
SAMe's Biochemical Pathway
View SAM’s Biochemical Pathway
SAMe may Enhance the Function of these Substances
SAMe is essential for the endogenous production of Glutathione within the Liver. SAMe is essential for the conversion of Putrescine to Spermidine. SAMe is essential for the conversion of Spermidine to Spermine.
SAMe is a cofactor for Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT).SAMe is a cofactor for Hydroxyindole-O-Methyltransferase (HIOMT).
SAMe is an essential cofactor for the conversion of N-Acetylserotonin to Melatonin.SAMe is an essential cofactor for the conversion of Norepinephrine to Adrenaline.
SAMe may increase the endogenous production of Phosphatidylserine (PS).
SAMe is an essential cofactor for the endogenous production of all Sulfur-containing compounds within the body.
SAMe may increase the production of Dopamine. SAMe may improve the ability of Neurotransmitters to bind to their respective Neurotransmitter Receptors. SAMe is an essential cofactor for the conversion of Norepinephrine (NE) to Adrenaline.
SAMe may increase the production of Serotonin.
SAMe is essential for the production of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). SAMe is essential for the production of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).
SAMe may accelerate the onset of action of Imipramine in the treatment of Depression. SAMe may increase the effectiveness of Venlafaxine for the treatment of Depression.
SAMe may Counteract the Toxic Effects of these Substances
Supplemental SAMe may lower elevated Homocysteine levels.
Supplemental SAMe (1,200 mg per day) may reduce the elevated Bilirubin levels that are associated with Gilbert’s Syndrome.
SAMe may help to prevent the Liver toxicity associated with the Pharmaceutical Drugs used in Chemotherapy. SAMe is speculated to protect against the toxic effects of Doxorubicin to the Heart. Supplemental SAMe may reduce the death-rate from overdoses of Paracetamol:
Animal studies have demonstrated that when rats are given supplemental SAMe within one hour of Paracetamol overdose, death can be prevented in 100% of cases; if supplemental SAM is administered within five hours of Paracetamol overdose, the death rate is significantly reduced.
SAMe may inhibit Alcohol-induced Liver damage:
SAMe may counteract the ability of Alcohol to cause Fatty Liver and may also treat pre-existing Fatty Liver.
SAMe (1,200 mg per day) may counteract the Anxiety and Depression commonly experienced by persons with Drug Dependence (including Opiates dependence) during the detoxification and rehabilitation period.
SAMe may reduce the Liver damage caused by Carbon Tetrachloride.
These Substances may Facilitate the Endogenous Production of SAMe
Betaine (especially the Trimethylglycine (TMG) form of Betaine) may increase endogenous SAMe levels.
Methionine is the precursor for the endogenous production of SAMe:
The conversion of Methionine to SAMe requires the presence of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and is catalyzed by the S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase (SAM Synthetase) enzyme.Half of the total Methionine content of the body is used in the Liver for the production of SAMe.
Ribose is a component of the SAMe molecule.
S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase (SAMe Synthetase) catalyzes the conversion of Methionine to (SAM):
More precisely, SAMe Synthetase + Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) + Water + L-Methionine = Orthophosphate + Pyrophosphate + S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM).
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is an essential cofactor for the endogenous conversion of Methionine to SAMe.Adenine is a component of the SAMe molecule (as part of Adenosine Triphosphate).
Folic Acid may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous SAMe. Vitamin B6 may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous SAMe. Vitamin B12 may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous SAMe.
These Substances may Interfere with S-Adenosylmethionine
Excessive Alcohol (ethanol) consumption may decrease the body’s production of SAMe.
These Ailments may Interfere with S-Adenosylmethionine
The body’s levels of SAMe decline in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process. Toxic Effects of S-Adenosylmethionine
SAMe is regarded as a very safe substance the side effect mentioned below occurs in only a minority of individuals.
Supplemental SAMe may cause Nausea in a very small number of persons.
Mania patients should not use supplemental SAMe (as additional SAM can aggravate Mania). Manic Depression patients should not use supplemental SAMe as SAMe’s Antidepressant properties may exacerbate the Manic phase in some Manic Depression patients.
Early forms of supplemental SAMe were deemed to be poorly absorbed orally, however more recently developed “salts” and enteric-coated versions of SAM are believed to be as bio-available as intravenously-administered SAM.
Endogenous S-Adenosylmethionine Production
The typical adult produces an average of 6,000 – 8,000 mg of SAMe per day. The majority is produced within the Liver.
The therapeutic dosage of supplemental SAMe is 400 1,200 mg per day.Supplemental SAMe should be consumed on an empty Stomach.
Generally, the longer that supplemental SAMe usage is continued, the more beneficial the results.
Forms of SAMe
SAM Sulfate is comprised of 50% SAM + 50% Sulfate.
Alternatives to SAMe Supplements
The main disadvantage of SAMe supplementation is its very high cost. It is possible to stimulate the body’s endogenous production of SAMe by using supplemental Betaine (Trimethylglycine) + Folic Acid + Vitamin B12